Land Fill

                         


                                 

                        REGULATORY REVIEW

       State of New Mexico Solid Waste Landfill Regulations

          

                                 
                      Report Submitted by:

                            Tim Davis
             ES 470-Environmental Impacts of Land Use

                         February 5, 1996                 

 
            EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  

This project entailed a thorough review of the State of New Mexico
Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Regulations.  The regulations
reviewed were issued July 18, 1994, and are listed by the NMED
call number EIB/SWMR-4.  The review analyzed the regulations and
summarized them into four distinct sections.  The sections
reviewed consist of the following regulations for municipal
landfills:


     1. General Site Selection and Characterization, 
 
     2.  Permitting Procedures, 

     3.  Operation/Training/Maintenance, and;

     4.  Closure and Post-Closure Procedures.  

The analysis of these regulations did not review regulations for
any solid waste activities not related to a general municipal
landfill project.  Activities not included in this review include
special requirements for infectious wastes, transporter
requirements, collection, composting, and other peripheral
procedures.   


                        TABLE OF CONTENTS



            SECTION                                 PAGE #  

            EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................     1  


            SITE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION.....     3  



             Siting Criteria....................     3  


            General Site Characterization......     4  

  
            Liner Design Criteria..............     6  


            Leachate Collection System Design..     8  


            Groundwater Monitoring Systems Design Criteria.....     10  
                    
 
            PERMITTING PROCEDURES...................     11


                
            OPERATION/TRAINING/MAINTENANCE..........     14  


               Operating Record...................     14

               Annual Report......................     14

               Groundwater Monitoring Procedures..     15

               Contingency Plan...................     16

               Operator Training..................     17

 

            CLOSURE AND POST-CLOSURE PROCEDURES.....     17

               Closure Requirements...............     17

               Post-Closure Care Requirements.....     18

              APPENDIX.................................    19

 SITE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION
  

Initial site selection and characterization is required prior to
preparation of the permit application.  All information included
in these sections will be incorporated in the permit application
when submitted.
Siting Criteria
Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Siting Criteria

     1.   The facility size cannot exceed 500 acres.

     2.   The facility cannot be located in a floodplain area.

     3.   The facility cannot be located within 500 feet of a
          designated wetlands area.

     4.   The facility cannot be located within 200 feet of a
          watercourse.

     5.   The proposed bottom of the fill area cannot be closer
          than 100 feet to the seasonal high water table depth.

     6.   The facility cannot be located in an area where
          registered subsurface mines are considered a problem. 
          (Registered by NM Department of Energy, Minerals, and
          Natural Resources and included on the Mines, Mills, and
          Quarries Map).

     7.   The facility cannot be located within 200 feet of a
          fault with a recorded displacement within the Holocene
          (11,000 years) time period.  This regulation can be
          bypassed with a demonstration of structural integrity
          with a less than 200 foot setback.

     8.   The facility cannot be located in an area with
          archaeologically significant sites, unless in
          compliance with the Cultural Properties Act and the
          Prehistoric Sites Preservation Act.

     9.   The facility cannot be located within 1000 feet of a
          public or private well pumping 100 gpm or more.

     10.  The facility cannot be located within 350 feet of a
          public or private well that pumps less than 100 gpm.

     11.  The facility cannot be located in an area within the
          minimum distance to airports as set forth by the
          Federal Aviation Administration.  Currently, this is
          listed in SWMR-4-201-B6 as 5 miles.

     12.  The landfill cannot be located within 50 feet from the
          property boundaries and 500 feet from actual structures
          of permanent residences, schools, hospitals,
          institutions, or churches.

     13.  The landfill cannot be located in an active alluvial
          fan.  Active is defined as those currently aggraded by
          either permanent or intermittent streams.

     14.  The landfill cannot be located in an area where
          critical habitat of endangered or threatened species is
          identified by 50 CFR Part 17 or by the Handbook of
          Species Endangered in New Mexico.

     15.  The landfill cannot be located in seismic impact zones
          or unstable areas.  This regulation can be bypassed
          with a suitable determination of no significant impact
          to structural integrity submitted to the Department.

Landfill Site Characterization and Preliminary Design Criteria

Several regulatory requirements must be addressed during the
initial site characterization and the preliminary design of the
facility.  All of the data and information determined in these
analyses will also be required for submittal in the permit
application package.  Several of the designs, including
groundwater monitoring systems, leachate collection, and liner
design and testing protocol must be "pre-approved" by the
Department.  The preliminary design includes drawings, sections,
maps, geology characterization, liner design, groundwater
monitoring system design, and leachate and gas removal/collection
design.  

 General Site Characterization   
The preliminary design requirements are as follows:

     1.   A schedule of proposed filling and compaction methods.

     2.   Types and sources of daily, intermediate, and final
          cover.

CLICK HERE FOR LANDFILL PHOTO

     3.   Site plans, drawings, and sections of the proposed
          facility drawn to scale and inclusive of:

          A.   Groundwater monitoring well locations and gas
               monitoring locations.

          B.   Material recovery operations.

          C.   Borrow and fill area locations.

          D.   Fire protection equipment location.

          E.   Provisions for concealing the site from public
               view and controlling noise.

          F.   Proposed surface drainage procedures.

          G.   Water supply location.

          H.   Location of buildings, roads, utilities, storage
               ponds, fences, and other site improvements.

          I.   Locations of electric power lines, pipelines,
               railroads, water, gas, oil wells, and public and
               private roads within 300 feet of proposed
               facility.

          J.   Location of all-weather access roads to and within
               the landfill, including all slopes, grades,
               lengths, load limits, and entrance and exit
               points.

     4.   A topographic map of the proposed site with 1"-200'
          scale and contour interval <2 feet where relief is <50 feet, and an interval of <5 feet where relief is>50
          feet.  All property lines and the landfill location
          must be included on this map.

     5.   The most recent USGS topographic map of the area
          showing boundaries, utilities, and structures within
          500 feet of the proposed facility.

     6.   The most recent USGS, or other agency, 100 year
          frequency floodplain map (if available, if not
          available, a demonstration of non-floodplain status is
          required).

     7.   A description of site geology and hydrology inclusive
          of characterization of the uppermost aquifer including
          depth, flow direction, gradient, and velocity.  In
          addition, a geologic characterization of the proposed
          facility including the results of any pre-approved
          boring plan submitted to the Department.  The geologic
          characterization must include:

          A.   A site plan with location, surface elevation, and
               total depth of each boring. (Each boring must be
               to a depth at least 100' below bottom of proposed
               fill area, or to groundwater, whichever comes
               first.

          B.   A columnar section of each boring, drawn to a
               1"=10' scale, graphically depicting soil/rock
               strata and describing each layer.  For soils, the
               description includes the color, degree of
               compaction, moisture content, and Unified Soils
               Classification System description.  If rock is
               encountered, a detailed lithologic description,
               including rock type, degree of induration,
               presence of fractures, fissility, and porosity are
               required.

     8.   If groundwater is encountered during borings, the
          initial depth must be recorded on the columnar
          sections.  The borings can be converted to wells if
          special conditions are met concerning proper well
          construction methods to eliminate the possibility of
          aquifer contamination.

     9.   A demonstration that surface water from the landfill
          will not discharge contaminants in violation of the New
          Mexico Water Quality Act.

     10.  A preliminary design for the closure and post-closure
          care of the facility.  (These requirements are included
          in the Closure/Post-Closure Section of this review).

 Landfill Liner Design Criteria   

All proposed solid waste facilities must provide a protective
layer beneath the solid waste.  The design of this liner system
must include the following:

     1.   The liner must be a composite liner consisting of two
          components:

The hydrogeological evaluation computer simulation model (HELP)
can be used to model existing or preliminary designs.

The model will evaluate the design and calculated expected leachate quantities.
 
CLICK HERE FOR DETAILED HELP MODEL INSTRUCTIONS
         
	  A.   An upper component with a minimum 30-mil flexible
               or a 60-mil high density polyethylene geomembrane
               liner.  This geomembrane must be installed in
               direct and uniform contact with the compacted soil
               component.

          B.   The lower component must consist of a minimum 24
               inch thick layer of compacted soil having a
               saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than
               1x10-7 cm/second throughout the thickness.  The
               soil must be free of particles greater than one
               inch in any dimension.  Equivalent protection may
               be approved if a system is designed in accordance
               with EPA requirements and concentration values are
               demonstrated below Appendix K levels (See Appendix
               of this regulatory review).  An equivalent
               alternative method must be approved by the
               Department considering relevant factors such as
               climate, hydrogeology, and leachate volumes and
               chemical characteristics.

     2.   The liner must be able to withstand the projected
          loading stress and disturbances from the waste, waste
          cover, and equipment operation.

CLICK HERE FOR LINER PHOTOGRAPH

     3.   The liner must incorporate a leachate system (see
          Leachate System Design Section of this review).

     4.   All liners must be constructed with a minimum two
          percent slope to promote positive drainage and
          facilitate the leachate collection.

     5.   Geomembranes must be compatible with the proposed
          wastes and resist chemical attack.  This must be
          documented by manufacturer's reports or chemical
          analyses.

     6.   All geomembranes installed with more than a 25% slope
          must be designed to withstand the calculated tensile
          forces acting upon it.  The design must consider the
          maximum friction angle of any interfaces, and ensure
          slope stability is maintained.

     7.   Geomembrane field seams must be oriented parallel to
          the line of maximum slope.  Seams in corners and
          irregular shaped areas must be minimized.  There will
          be no horizontal seam within 5 feet of the toe of the
          slope.

CLICK HERE FOR LINER INSTALLATION PHOTO

     8.   The soil component of the liner where the first
          geomembrane is installed must have a subgrade of a
          minimum 6 inch layer of in-situ soil or select fill
          compacted to 90% Standard Proctor Density.

     9.   The soil surface must be free of stones larger than 1/2
          inch in any dimension, organic mater, local
          irregularities, protrusions, loose soil, or any abrupt
          changes in grade.

CLICK HERE FOR SOIL SORTING MACHINERY (SIZE) PHOTO

     10.  The soil component liner must be compacted to 90%
          Standard Proctor Density, and have a plasticity index
          greater than 10%, liquid limit between 25% and 50%,
          material passing the #200 sieve greater than 40% by
          weight, and a clay content of more than 18% by weight. 
          (The methods allowable for these analyses are included
          in the Appendix of this report).

     11.  The liner system must have a protective cover of at
          least two feet of granular soil to facilitate leachate
          collection.  This soil must have no more than 5% by
          weight passing a #200 sieve, and a uniformity
          coefficient (Cu) of less than 6, where Cu is defined as
          D60/D10.

CLICK HERE FOR PHOTO OF SAND PREPARATION

     12.  All testing for soils and liners must be done to
          applicable ASTM standards.  A quality control plan must
          be prepared for liner and soil testing and
          installation.  This plan must include:

          A.   A definition of the procedures used for testing
               and reporting the test results.

          B.   Describe and illustrate procedures for personnel
               involved to maintain the integrity of the liner.

          C.   Prescribe the necessary frequency for testing
               during borrow source testing, liner testing during
               construction, and granular drainage material
               testing.  Frequencies are shown in SWMR-4, Tables
               307.B.3 and 307.B.4.

     13.  All testing of geomembranes will be done per
          manufacturer's recommendations.  The minimum frequency
          for seam sample destructive testing will be one per 500
          feet of seam.  Seam samples will be tested for peel
          adhesion and bonded strength.

     14.  Non-destructive testing will be required for all seams,
          seam repairs, and liner repairs.

     15.  All testing results must be documented.

 Leachate Collection System Design Criteria   


All landfill systems must have a leachate collection system.  The
design of the system must be submitted for approval prior to
acceptance.  The design of the system must include the following
information:

     1.   A description of the anticipated amounts of leachate,
          duration of generation, and final disposal options. 
          This must also include analysis methods and treatment
          procedures prior to disposal (if applicable).

     2.   A design consisting of a piping collection network of
          perforated pipe having a minimum diameter of 4 inches
          and a minimum wall thickness of schedule 80.

     3.   The system must maintain less than a one-foot depth of
          leachate on the liner.

     4.   The system must maintain a minimum two percent slope
          throughout the system.

     5.   The system must withstand chemical attack from the
          proposed leachate.

     6.   The system must be able to withstand the proposed
          loads, stresses, and disturbances from overlying waste,
          waste cover, and equipment operations.

     7.   When geonets or geotextiles are used in a leachate
          collection system, the hydraulic conductivity,
          transmissivity, and chemical and physical qualities
          must not be adversely affected by the waste placement,
          operation, equipment, or the leachate generation.  The
          hydraulic head on the liner can never exceed one foot
          if these materials are used in a leachate collection
          system.


Landfill Gas Control System Design Criteria

If required to install and operate a gas collection and control
system, a preliminary design of the system must be prepared and
submitted for approval of the Department.  The system design must
include:

     1.   A design which includes all vents, barriers, collection
          piping, and manifolds and other control measures that
          will be installed.

     2.   A design of a gas recovery system (if applicable)
          including the storage, transportation, processing,
          treatment, or disposal measures used in the management
          of the generated gases, condensates, or other residues.

     3.   For gas processing, the design must not interfere with
          site operations, or create or cause danger to persons
          or property.

     4.   For gas disposal, the design must not interfere with
          site activities, create or cause danger to persons or
          property, and if active forced ventilation is utilized,
          the vents must be located at least one foot above the
          landfill surface at the location of each gas vent.

     5.   A plan for the analysis of physical and chemical
          properties of condensates and residues prior to
          treatment or disposal must be prepared.

 
Groundwater Monitoring Systems Design Criteria  


All solid waste facilities must design a groundwater monitoring
system which must be maintained throughout the active life of the
facility and during all closure and post-closure operations.  The
sampling and analysis program for these systems is delineated in
the Operations Section of this review.  The groundwater monitoring
systems must include the following in their design:

     1.   A sufficient number of monitoring wells to accurately
          depict the subsurface water quality in the uppermost
          aquifer.

     2.   Uppermost aquifer samples obtained from the system must
          represent the background groundwater quality which has
          not been affected by the landfill (up-gradient well).  

     3.   Downgradient wells that monitor water quality at the
          Department or EPA determined "point of compliance". 
          Down-gradient wells will be installed at the closest
          possible location to the mandated point of compliance.

     4.   Monitoring wells will be constructed in compliance with
          ASTM method 5092 to ensure the integrity of the
          borehole is maintained.  

     5.   The bore-hole shall be drilled a minimum of 4 inches
          larger than the casing diameter to allow for sealant
          and sand emplacement.

     6.   Procedures must be implemented to ensure no
          contamination is introduced to the borehole.

     7.   Development of the well will allow free flow of water
          and low turbidity.

     8.   Casing shall be Schedule 40 PVC threaded pipe, not less
          than 2 inches.  The casing shall extend from the top of
          the screen to one foot above ground surface.  The
          casing will have a protective cap and locking shroud. 
          The shroud will be large enough for easy removal of the
          plastic cap.

     9.   The screen shall be at least a 20 foot section of
          machine slotted or other manufactured screen.  No on-site or hack saw slotting of the screen is allowed.

     10.  If the uppermost aquifer is unconfined, the screen will
          rise 5 feet above the water table to allow for seasonal
          variations.

     11.  If it is confined, the top of the screen will be
          located at the interface between the aquifer and the
          confining layer.

     12.  The screen shall be centralized at the top and the
          bottom.

     13.  The annular space +/- 2 feet from the screen will be
          packed with sand having medium to coarse grain and
          clean.  The sand must be sized so no fines will enter
          the well.  A tremmie pipe will be used for placement in
          deeper wells.

     14.  The annular space 2 feet above the sand will be grouted
          or sealed with bentonite or cement using a tremmie
          pipe.  Alternatively, bentonite seal can be placed
          using pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 inch in size.

     15.  Above the seal, the annular space is filled with clean
          drill cuttings or clean sandy clay to within 10 feet of
          the ground surface.

     16.  The next seven feet will be filled with bentonite
          cement grout.

     17.  The final three feet of annular space will be filled
          with concrete.  A sloped, 2 foot radius by 4 inch thick
          concrete pad will be poured around the casing.

     18.  A construction and lithologic log for each well must be
          maintained and submitted to the Department as part of
          the operating record.

     19.  Each casing of each monitoring well must be surveyed.

     20.  The final design must include the number, spacing,
          location, and depths of the wells.  This design must be
          based on site specific information such as aquifer
          thickness, flow rate, flow direction, and seasonal and
          temporal fluctuations.  The design must be certified by
          a qualified ground water scientist and approved by the
          Department.

     21.  If required, and approved by the Department, vadose
          monitoring systems can also be designed and used for
          direct and indirect monitoring of contamination.  

  
PERMITTING PROCEDURES   

A permit is required for any person seeking to construct, operate,
close, or modify a solid waste facility.  The permit application
must include all information deemed necessary for the Department
to determine compliance with the regulations.  The permit
application must include the following:

     1.   All the design plans, drawings, and sections signed and
          sealed by a professional engineer registered with the
          State of New Mexico.

     2.   The financial assurance requirements unless it is
          operated by the United States or the State of New
          Mexico governments.  Local governments can comply by
          special financial arrangement as delineated in Section
          IX, Part F.

     3.   Proof of FAA notification of siting if within 5 miles
          of an airport.

     4.   A disclosure statement on forms provided by the
          department and in compliance with Section 74-9-21 of
          the Solid Waste Act.

     5.   Documentation that satisfies all the requirements of
          the operations, maintenance, and training section of
          this review.

     6.   Documentation that all the siting criteria requirements
          as listed in this review are met.

     7.   One copy submitted initially for permit review
          processes, then four copies of the entire application
          package submitted after the Department deems the
          application complete.

     8.   The name and address of the applicant, property owner,
          and facility owner and/or applicant.

     9.   A legal description of the proposed facility and
          include maps, land use, and zoning information for the
          facility and surrounding land.

     10.  If exploration borings were used to collect geologic
          data, a certification that the holes were plugged and
          sealed in accordance with the State Engineer's
          requirements must be included.

     11.  Documentation of odor control procedures.

     12.  A narrative description of the operating plan,
          including the origin, expected composition, and volume
          of waste, process used at facility, daily operational
          methodologies, loading rate, proposed facility
          capacity, and expected life of the facility.

     13.  A narrative description of the alternative waste
          handling plan to be implemented in the event of
          facility non-operation, or mechanical equipment
          breakdown.

     14.  Anticipated start up date of the facility.

     15.  Operating hours of the facility.

     16.  Detailed information on waste transportation plans for
          moving solid waste to and from the facility.  This will
          include size and number of vehicles, routes, road and
          bridge suitability for the vehicles, vehicle
          litter/noise/dust control caused by traffic, and any
          other traffic and/or vehicle plans or information.

     17.  A description of the contingency plan in the event of
          an emergency situation  (Contingency Plans are detailed
          in Section VIII of SWMR-4 and in this review).

     18.  Provide proof of certified mail notice of permit
          application to owners of record near the facility
          location as follows:

          A.   Owners within 100 feet of property if in Class A
               or H county, or municipality of more than 2500
               population.

          B.   Owners within one-half mile for any other property
               owner or municipality not covered by 18.A.

          C.   All municipalities, counties, and tribal
               governments within 10 miles.

          D.   Provide to any other interested party.

     19.  Publish the permit application notice in a general
          circulation newspaper for each county affected in two
          places;  the legal or classifieds and one other place
          to ensure maximum notice.  The notice must be in
          Spanish and English when appropriate.

     20.  Post the permit application notice in four conspicuous
          and publicly accessible places including the proposed
          entrance to the facility.  The permit application
          notice must include:

          A.   Name, address, phone number of applicant and a
               contact person.

          B.   Anticipated start up date and hours of operation.

          C.   Description of the facility, including processes,
               location, size, quantity, rate, and type of waste
               handled.

          D.   Origin of the waste.

          E.   A statement that comments or questions be provided
               to the applicant and the Department.

     21.  Documentation of the preliminary design (i.e. cover,
          groundwater monitoring, liner, maps, etc.).  The
          requirements for these permit application requirements
          are included in the design criteria section of this
          review.

     22.  Signature of applicants with notary public seal.

     23.  Any other information as requested by the Secretary of
          the Department.

 
OPERATION/TRAINING/MAINTENANCE  AND GROUND WATER MONITORING  
         

All solid waste facilities require an operating record, generation
of an annual report, groundwater monitoring, and operator
training.  Owners and operators of solid waste facilities must
prepare and maintain an operating record during the operating life
of the facility.  The operating record will include the following
information:


General Operating Record Information

     1.   Proposed type, weight, or volume of wastes received.

     2.   Country of origin of foreign wastes (if applicable).

     3.   Commercial haulers of the waste.

     4.   Type and volume of special wastes received.

     5.   Description of solid waste or special waste handling
          problems or emergency disposal activities.

     6.   Record of any deviations from procedures.

General Operation Requirements

All solid waste facilities must implement the following
procedures during operation:
 
     1.   Locate and operate the facility in a manner that does
          not cause a public nuisance or create a potential
          hazard to the public health, welfare or the
          environment.

     2.   Post signs to indicate the location of the facility,
          hours of operation, emergency phone numbers, disposal
          instructions, and state that fires and scavenging is
          not permitted.

     3.   Have a certified operator or representative present at
          all times while the facility is operational.

     4.   Have a plan to inspect loads to detect and prevent the
          disposal of hazardous and unauthorized waste.  The plan
          must include inspection frequencies, inspection
          personnel, location of inspection away from the tipping
          area, and a training program for personnel to ensure
          proper identification of unauthorized wastes.

     5.   Maintain a written record of inspections and
          identification of company and driver that were
          inspected.  If unauthorized waste is discovered, notify
          the Department, hauler, and generator within 24 hours
          and assure proper cleanup and disposal.

     6.   Utilize the principles of sanitary engineering to
          confine the working face to the smallest practical area
          and to compact the solid waste to the smallest
          practical volume.   

     7.   Prevent the generation and lateral migration of methane
          gas so the concentration does not exceed 25% of the
          lower explosive limit at facility structures and the
          property boundary.

     8.   Implement a routine methane monitoring program
          depending on soil and hydrogeologic conditions, and
          facility structure locations and property lines.   The
          minimum monitoring frequency is quarterly.  If methane
          levels exceed the requirements, the operator must
          implement a plan to ensure protection of public and the
          environment.  A report must be submitted to the
          Department indicating the levels and the corrective
          action taken.

     9.   Prevent unauthorized access by the public and entry by
          large animals using fences, gates, or other means.

     10.  Control run-on water and run-off water from the site. 
          The control requirements are based on a peak discharge
          from a 25 year storm.  The run-off cannot be discharged
          in violation of the New Mexico Water Quality Act.

     11.  The facility must prohibit scavenging.

     12.  The facility must have adequate means to prevent and
          extinguish fires.

     13.  Hot wastes must be deposited at a different location
          and allowed to cool prior to deposit in the landfill.

     14.  Provide and maintain the access roads at the facility
          to promote smooth traffic flow even in inclement
          weather.

     15.  Provide sufficient unloading areas to meet demands of
          peak periods.

     16.  Collect and treat leachate based on the Leachate
          Collection Plan.

     17.  Control dust, litter, disease vectors, and odors.

CLICK HERE FOR DUST SUPPRESSION PHOTO

     18.  A closed cell cannot be excavated unless approved by
          the Department.

     19.  Cover the active face with a six inch layer of earth at
          the conclusion of each day's operation or more often if
          conditions dictate.

     20.  Provide intermediate cover which must be one foot
          thick, and placed on areas of the landfill that will
          not accept waste for more than one month.  If the area
          is not active for more than two years, the intermediate
          cover must be stabilized with vegetation.  In addition,
          the cover must be inspected and maintained to prevent
          erosion and infiltration.

     21.  If recycling operations are performed, a separate site
          must be used and operated in a sanitary manner.  This
          site must not interfere with the daily operation of the
          landfill.  Recycled materials must be removed from the
          facility in a timely manner.

Annual Report Requirements

     1.   The operating permit information shown above.

     2.   All groundwater monitoring results.

     3.   A description of capacity used and remaining capacity.

     4.   A narrative describing the acreage used, seeded, and
          vegetated.  The narrative will also include any
          progress made towards the closure plan.

     5.   Weight and volume of recycled material.

     6.   Final disposition of materials not recycled.

     7.   Amount of leachate generated and treated.

     8.   Financial data for the year, on forms supplied by the
          Department.

     9.   Annual reports must be retained through the post
          closure period and for seven years after final closure.

Groundwater Monitoring Procedures

The sampling and analysis program must be prepared and submitted
with the application package.  The procedures will be documented
and placed in the operating record.

     1.   Procedures and techniques must be determined for the
          following groundwater monitoring procedures.

          A.   Sample collection.

          B.   Sample preservation and shipment to analysis labs.

          C.   Analytical procedures.

          D.   Chain of custody control.

          E.   QA and QC.

     2.   All groundwater monitoring will conform to the
          guidelines in RCRA Ground Water Monitoring:  Draft
          Technical Guidance, unless approved by the Department.

     3.   Groundwater elevations must be measured within one-hundredth of a foot prior to purging each well.

     4.   Background concentrations for the up-gradient clean
          well must be determined.

     5.   The number of samples collected must be consistent with
          the appropriate statistical method used.  A t-interval
          or t-test can be used as shown in SWMR-4-803-F.1.


     6.   Initial assessment monitoring will be performed to
          determine the presence of contaminants above background
          levels, and this information will be submitted to the
          Department.  

     7.   A detection monitoring program will be implemented for
          parameters in Appendix A of the regulations.  The
          Department can delete or add compounds to the list
          after review of the background concentrations and the
          proposed wastes in the landfill.

     8.   Monitoring frequency will be at least semi-annually
          during the life of the facility.  The Department can
          revise monitoring frequencies after the first year to
          annually if a review indicates no significant problems.

     9.   If a constituent is detected above assessment
          monitoring levels, the Department must be notified, and
          an assessment monitoring program instituted.  The
          assessment monitoring levels are based on the
          groundwater protection standard (SWMR-4-805, and
          Appendix A).

     10.  Alternate frequency and sample quantities will be
          determined by the Department if assessment monitoring
          levels are exceeded.  

     11.  If levels are consistently higher after resampling and
          statistical analyses, the facility must continue the
          assessment monitoring program and notify affected
          landowners.  Additional monitoring wells may be
          required to accurately characterize the contamination.

     12.  In the event of continued contamination, the facility
          will implement corrective action levels for the
          contaminants, then implement a corrective action
          investigation to determine the measures to employ,
          selection of a remedy, and implementation of the plan.
          (SWMR-4-807 through SWMR-4-810).

Contingency Plan

Every facility will have a contingency plan for emergencies
submitted with the application package, and placed in the
operating record.  The plan requirements are detailed in SWMR-4-811.  In general it requires:

     1.   Procedures for fires, explosions, hazardous releases,
          or any other possible emergency.

     2.   Procedures for notification of local emergency response
          personnel.

     3.   A list of emergency coordinators and contacts.

     4.   A list of all emergency response equipment located at
          the facility.

     5.   An evacuation plan for the facility.

     6.   Other information as required for emergency coordinator
          duties, and facility operations stoppage in the event
          of an emergency.

Training

Operators at permitted landfill facilities must be certified.  The
requirements for certification include the following:

     1.   Operator must have two years of experience.

     2.   Operator must attend an approved training course
          teaching the topics listed in SWMR-4-603.

     3.   For any classification of worker, experience can not be
          less than one year.

     4.   A high school diploma or GED may be substituted for one
          year of experience.




CLOSURE AND POST-CLOSURE PROCEDURES]

Closure Requirements

Closure and post-closure plans are required for all solid waste
facilities and must be prepared and submitted with the initial
permit application.  The closure procedures must commence within
30 days after receipt of the final waste.  The plan must include
the following:

     1.   Design of a final cover system which consists of the
          following:

          A.   An infiltration layer comprised of a minimum of 18
               inches of earthen material with a saturated
               hydraulic conductivity equal or less than that of
               the bottom liner layer, or 1x10-5, whichever is
               less.

          B.   An erosion layer consisting of a minimum of 6
               inches of earthen material capable of sustaining
               live growth.

     2.   Design of necessary gas vents sealed to prevent water
          intrusion.

     3.   Side slopes that do not exceed 25% grade and top grade
          of 2-5% to ensure water runoff.

     4.   Design of the final cover and the procedures used to
          install it.

     5.   An estimate of the largest area of the landfill
          requiring a final cover during the active life.

     6.   An estimate of the maximum volume of waste during the
          life of the facility.

     7.   A schedule for completing the closure activities.

     8.   A design plan showing the final contours and vegetation
          in relation to the surrounding land, and a description
          of proposed vegetation for permanent soil
          stabilization.

     9.   Closure must be completed within 180 days of
          initiation.

     10.  The closure must be recorded on the property deed.

Post Closure Requirements

A post closure care plan must be submitted to the Department
delineating the following requirements:

     1.   Procedures for maintenance of the final cover.

     2.   Continued maintenance and operation of the leachate
          system.

     3.   Operation and maintenance of any gas recovery or
          venting systems.

     4.   Operation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring
          wells.

     5.   Annual reports of the post closure activities including
          monitoring well results will submitted annually to the
          Department.

     6.   Post closure procedures will be implemented for a
                    minimum of 30 years after closure. 





                             APPENDIX

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Last modified 02/15/96