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PROCEEDINGS

 

 

WESTERN PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE

 

 

BRANSON LIBRARY 

New Mexico State University

 

 

 

CALL # SB401P4W4


PROCEEDINGS

FIRST ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

DECEMBER 5-8, 1966

 

INDEX

 

BANDING SYSTEM FOR TIMING CASEBEARER SPRAYS………………………………………………5

 

A BEGINNER’S EXPERIENCE IN PLANTING A PECAN ORCHARD…………………………………….9

 

CONTROLLING TREE SIZE…………………………………………………………………………………14

 

CONTROL OF PECAN DISEASES……………………………………………………………………………6

 

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF PECAN PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN THE IRRIGATED WEST.…5

 

ECONOMIC OUTLOOK OF THE PECAN INDUSTRY………………………………………………..……7

 

GROWING PECANS IN THE IRRIGATED WEST………………………………………………………….12

 

OCCURANCE OF THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER IN EDDY COUNTY………………………………13

 

PECAN PROPAGATION AND TOPWORKING……………………………………………………………11

 

PECAN TREE NUTRITION………………………………………………………………………………….10

 

POLLINATION PROBLEMS WITH WESTERN VARIETIES OF PECANS…………………………..……4

 

SOIL-WATER RELATIONSHIPS IN WESTERN IRRIGATED SOILS………………………………..……6

 

USE OF A SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF PECAN APHIDS AND MITES……...…4

 

VALUE OF PECAN GROWERS’ ASSOCIATIONS………………………………………………………….8

 

THE PECAN BREEDING AND TESTING PROGRAM AT NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY……15

 

 

 


PROCEEDINGS

SECOND ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

JANUARY 23-25, 1968

 

INDEX

 

CONTROLLING TREE SIZE IN PECANS……………………………………………………………………1

 

INFLUENCE OF PECAN ROOTSTOCKS……………………………………………………………………3

 

PROBLEMS WITH THE YOUNG PECAN ORCHARD…………………………………………….….…7-11

 

PECAN TREE EVALUATION…………………………………………………………………………….…13

 

PHYMATOTRICMUM ROOT ROT ON PECAN……………………………………………………………17

 

HARVESTING AIDS………………………………………………………………………………………….21

 

PECAN VARIETIES FOR THE SOUTHWEST…………………………………………………………...…23

 

PECAN PRUNING EXPERIMENTS IN ALABAMA………………………………………………………27

 

COMMERCIAL PROPAGATION OF PECAN NURSERY STOCK…………………………………..……29

 

DETERMINING AND SATISFYING NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN THE BEARING ORCHARD…………33

 

PECAN ZINC AND MANGANESE NUTRITION IN THE EL PASO VALLEY………………………...…37

 

THE USE OF HERBICIDES IN TEXAS PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………41-46

 

DEVELOPING THE FRAMEWORK OF THE YOUNG PECAN TREES………………………………..…47

 

PROMOTING PECANS IN THE PECOS VALLEY…………………………………………………………51

 

 


PROCEEDINGS

THIRD ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

JANUARY 20-23, 1969

 

INDEX

 

PURPOSE, OBJECTIVES AND PRESENT STATUS OF THE WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION…………………………………………….……………………………………..1

 

TREE TOPPING………………………………………………………………..……………………………….3

 

HOW TO DETERMINE IRRIGATION NEEDS……………………………………..………………………..4

 

FINANCING PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………………………..…………………..6

 

A PEEK AT PECAN POSSIBILITIES…………………………………………………………………………7

 

HOW TO DETERMINE PLANT NUTRIENT NEEDS…………………………………….………………..11

 

THE PECAN INDUSTRY IN NEW MEXICO……………………………………………………...………..14

 

OUTLOOK FOR PECANS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY…………………………………………………..16

 

HOW TO TRANSPLANT A PECAN TREE………………………………………………………………….19

 

STANDARD vs HIGH DENSITY PLANTING………………………………………………………………20

 

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

FOURTH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

JANUARY, 1970

 

INDEX

 

PECANS, FOOD FOR A WORKING MAN………………………………...…………………………………1

 

MARKETING RESEARCH WITH PECANS……………………………...…………………………………..2

 

THREE YEARS OF CHEMICAL, WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN TEXAS PECAN ORCHARDS…..10

 

EFFECT OF DEFOLIANTS ON MATURITY AND HARVESTING at the Middle Rio Grande…………...17

 

CONTROLLING PECAN APHID………………………………………………………………………….…17

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER AND ITS CONTROL………………………………………………………...19

 

NEED FOR AND METHODS OF PROPAGATING CLONAL ROOTSTOCKS FOR PECANS…………..20

 

RESULTS OF HEAVY PRUNING……………………………………………………………………...……22

 

POLLINATION PROBLEMS WITH WESTERN VARIETIES OF PECANS………………………………25

 

HIGH DENSITY PLANTING OF PECAN TREES………………………………………………………..…24

 

OBSERVATIONS ON PREMATURE SHEDDING OF PECANS……………………………………..……26

 

SOIL AND WATER SALINITY –A SERIOUS PROBLEM IN WESTERN PECAN PRODUCTION……..30

 

PECAN PRUNING EXPERIMENTS-ARIZONA – 1969…………………………………………….………34

 

PRESENT STATUS OF PECAN ZINC NUTRITION RESEARCH…………………………………………36

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

FIFTH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

JANUARY 25 - 28, 1971

 

INDEX

 

PECANS FOR THE SOUTHWEST:  PAST, PRESENT AND POSSIBLE FUTURE………………...………1

 

COOPERATIVE CRACKING AND MARKETING OF PECANS……………………………………………4

 

REGROWTH PATTERNS ON DETAILED DORMANT PRUNED PECAN TREES…….………………….7

 

DOUBLE GROWING PECAN ORCHARDS WITH LIVESTOCK………………………………………….11

 

ROOT-INHABITING MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI BENEFIT GROWTH TO TREES……………………..…14

 

PROGRESS REPORT ON RESEARCH AT THE U.S. PECAN FIELD STATION…………………………18

 

ETIOLOGY OF PECAN SHUCK DISEASE…………………………………………………………………24

 

HAIL INSURANCE ON PECANS……………………………………………………………………………25

 

PECAN WEEVIL IN NEW MEXICO………………………………………………………………………...27

 

PECAN TREES IN MEXICO………………………………………………………………………………....30

 

MECHANICAL PRUNING OF YOUNG PECAN TREES………………………………………..…………33

 

DISORDER IN THE COURTS…………………………………………………………………………….…35

 

PECAN RESEARCH AT THE U.S. SOUTHWESTERN FRUIT AND TREE NUT RESEARCH

STATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………39

 

MANGANESE DEFICIENCY IN PECAN TREES………………………………………………………..…40

 

INTRODUCTION OF THE TRICKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEM…………………………………………….43

 

TRICKLE IRRIGATION FOR PECANS…………………………………………………………………..…45

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

6th ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

JANUARY 1972

 

INDEX

 

THE PECAN:  THE PERENNIAL OF ALL PERENNIALS…………………………………………….3

 

WITHOUT A SONG………………………………………………………………………………………5

 

ADAPTATIONS OF PECANS TO CENTRAL MEXICO………………………………………………..8

 

THE GREEN NUT (PISTACHIO) WITH A GOLDEN FUTURE………………………………………..11

 

FROST PROTECTION TECHNIQUES FOR DECIDUOUS ORCHARDS………………………………16

 

COSTS OF GROWING AND MAINTAINING A YOUNG IRRIGATED PECAN ORCHARD…………21

 

SHUCK DISEASE IN PECANS…………………………………………………………………………….22

 

BUNCH DISEASE IN PECANS……………………………………………………………………………29

 

LET’S PLANT A NUT………………………………………………………………………………………31

 

EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIN STEM TREATMENT ON ROOT GROWTH IN SEEDLING PECANS…..34

 

PECAN CLONAL ROOTSTOCK PROPAGATION………………………………………………………..35

 

HIGH DENSITY vs. STANDARD SPACING………………………………………………………………37

 

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PRUNING…………………………………………………………..40

 

NUTRIENT LEVELS OF PECAN LEAVES FROM MESILLA VALLEY ORCHARDS………………….43

 

VALUE OF LEAF ANALYSIS IN DETERMINING FERTILIZER NEEDS………………………………..44

 

MAINTAINING MOISTURE LEVELS UNDER THE TRICKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEM……………….46

 

MATURITY RESPONSES TO ETHREL IN PECANS………………………………………………………49

 

INSECTS VS. INSECTICIDES:  AN EVER INCREASING COMPLICATION…………………………….50

 

STATUS OF THE PECAN WEEVIL THREAT IN NEW MEXICO……………………………………...…52

 

THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER SITUATION IN EDDY COUNTY…………………………………….54

 

THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER SITUATION IN CHAVES COUNTY…………………………………55

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

7TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1973

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME TO PECAN GROWERS………………………………………………………………………..1

 

THE PECAN SITUATION IN NEW MEXICO………………………………………………………………3

 

THE PECAN SITUATION IN TEXAS……………………………………………………………………….5

 

WEED CONTROL IN ARIZONA PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………………….7

 

THE PECAN SITUATION IN ARIZONA……………………………………………………………………10

 

THE PECAN SITUATION ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI…………………………………………………….12

 

THE PECAN SITUATION IN THE SOUTHEAST…………………………………………………………..14

 

WHAT THE PRODUCER CAN DO TO HELP IN MARKETING…………………………………………..16

 

THE WALNUT INDUSTRY, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE……………………………………………19

 

OBJECTIVES OF THE TEXAS PECAN CHECK-OFF PROGRAM………………………………………..22

 

SOME PROPOSALS FOR DEPRECIATION OF PECAN TREES………………………………………….24

 

INNOVATIONS IN PECAN PRODUCTION PRACTICED IN ARKANSAS………………………………26

 

EFFECT OF SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES ON BENEFICIAL INSECTS…………………………………...28

 

NEW MEXICO PEST CONTROL ACT EXTERIOR QUARANTINES NO. 3 AND NO. 4………………..31

 

BROWN APRICOT SCALE ON PECANS…………………………………………………………………...33

 

CLOSE SPACING OF WESTERN PECAN TREES…………………………………………………………35

 

WHAT YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT HIGH DENSITY………………………………..39

 

GROWERS EXPERIENCES WITH HIGH DENSITY PLANTING:  PANEL DISCUSSION……………..42

 

TREE-SIZE CONTROL FOR HIGH DENSITY PLANTINGS……………………………………………..48

 

ABSORPTION OF SALTS BY PLANT ROOTS……………………………………………………………52

 

GROWERS EXPERIENCE IN FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC………………………………………..62

 

EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUT QUALITY OF PECANS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY……………………………………………………………………..64

 

GROWER EXPERIENCES WITH HIGH DENSITY PLANTING OF PECANS:  A PANEL DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………66

 

WHAT IS FROST AND HOW MAY IT BE CONTROLLED………………………………………………68

 

APPRAISAL OF FROST CONTROL SYSTEMS IN DECIDUOUS ORCHARDS………………………..72

 

CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN PECAN ORCHARDS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY………………..81

 

COMPUTER SCHEDULING OF PECAN IRRIGATIONS IN THE EL PASO IRRIGATION DISTRICT OF THE RIO GRNADE PROJECT……………………………………………………………………………….84

 

WHAT IS TRICKLE IRRIGATION?................................................................................................................87

 

DRIP IRRIGATION EXPERIMENT………………………………………………………………………….89

 

DOES TRICKLE IRRIGATION WORK IN PECAN ORCHARDS?...............................................................91

 

SUMMATION OF THE 7TH ANNUAL PECAN CONFERENCE…………………...………………………93

 

PANEL DISCUSSION ON TRICLE IRRIGATION………………………………………………………….94

 

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

8TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1974

 

INDEX

 

FRUITING PATTERNS WITH YOUNG PECAN TREES…………………………………………………..1

 

PISTILLATE FLOWER INITIATION IN THE “WESTERN SCHLEY” PECAN…………………………..3

 

SCHEDULING PECAN IRRIGATIONS BY COMPUTER…………………………………………………..7

 

ZINC NITRATE OPENS NEW FRONTIERS OF ROSETTE CONTROL…………………………………..19

 

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF TWO PECNA LEAFMINERS…………………………………………….22

 

POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF THE HICKORY SHUCKWORM AND THE PECAN WEEVIL IN INSHELL PECANS……………………………………………………………………………………………29

 

INFLUENCE OF SOD CULTURE ON COMPACTION IN IRRIGATED PECAN ORCHARDS………….36

 

CHEMICAL THINNING OF PECANS……………………………………………………………………….38

 

PECAN VARIETY BEHAVIOR IN ARIZONA……………...………………………………………………40

 

CUSTOM SERVICES:  PRUNING, SPRAYING AND HARVESTING ……………………………………44

 

ESTABLISHING NUTRITION LEVELS FOR NEW MEXICO PECANS………………………………….48

 

PECAN VARIETIES FOR THE FUTURE (ABSTRACT)…………………………………………………...50

 

WALNUT CATERPILLAR AND WEBWORMS OF PECAN………………………………………………51

 

ECONOMIC LOSSES ATTRIBUTABLE TO SOME PECAN INSECTS IN TEXAS………………………57

 

EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ON MATURE PECAN TREES………………………..…63

 

THE RELATIONSHIP OF STORED RESERVES TO YIELD IN MATURE PECAN TREES……………..65

 

PLANT BUGS:  ONE OF THE MAIN CULPRITS CAUSING BOTH BLACK PIT AND KERNEL SPOT IN PECANS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….70

 

LOOKING AT THE OUTSIDE AND THE INSIDE OF SOME PECAN VARIETIES ……………………..73

 

COSTS AND RETURNS FOR PECAN PRODUCTION IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO………………...82

 

PECAN PRODUCTION DATA:  LAYMAN’S ANALYSIS AND A LAYMAN’S GUESS ……………….90

 

PECAN DRIP IRRIGATION IN THE LOWER EL PASO VALLEY………………………………………103

 

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION-1974 MEMBERSHIP…………………..109

 

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

9TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1975

 

INDEX

 

A LOOK AHEAD……………………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

A NEW LOOK AT THE PECAN INDUSTRY……………………………………………………………….4

 

THE WORLD FOOD PROBLEM:  A CHALLENGE FOR AGRICULTURE……………………………….6

 

CHANGING WORLD FERTILIZER SITUATION…………………………………………………………..14

 

USE OF CLYCLIC CLIMATIC PATTERNS IN AGRICULTURE PLANNING…………………………...16

 

THE ORCHARD MANAGEMENT CYCLE…………………………………………………………………25

 

BUDBREAK, BLOSSOM DATES, NUT MATURITY, AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON OF THE MAJOR PECAN VARIETIES GROWN IN THE WEST…………………………………………………….28

 

BREEDING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PECAN SEEDLING ROOTSTOCKS………………………33

 

EFFECTS OF CHILLING AND STRATIFICATION ON PECAN NUT GERMINATION………………...37

 

THE EFFECT OF TREE TRAINING AND PRUNING SYSTEMS ON YIELD AND EAST OF HARVESTING………………………………………………………………………………………………41

 

PREPARING THE ORCHARD FLOOR FOR HARVESTING…………………………………………….44

 

SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE HARVEST EQUIPMENT……………………………………………46

 

REMOVING THE NUTS FROM THE TREES……………………………………………………………..48

Jack Ritter

REMOVING THE NUTS FROM THE TREES…………………………………………………………….50

Don Mayo

LIFTING THE NUTS FROM THE GROUND USING RAMACHER EQUIPMENT …………………….53

 

PREPARING THE NUTS FOR MARKET USING PHELPS-DAVIS EQUIPMENT………………………55

 

LIFTING THE NUTS FROM THE GROUND USING MCNAIR/INGALLS EQUIPMENT………………56

 

LIFTING THE NUTS FROM THE GROUND USING FLORY EQUIPMENT ORVILLE BATES……….57

 

ALL IN ONE OPERATIONS –HALSEY HARVESTORS………………………………………………….58

 

 PREPARING THE NUTS FOR MARKET USING BARTON CLEANING EQUIPMENT………………60

 

ALL IN ONE OPERATIONS ORCHARD MACHINERY EQUIPMENT………………………………….62

 

PREPARING THE NUTS FOR MARKET USING HOBBS CLEANING EQUIPMENT………………….65

 

EXPERIENCES IN OPERATING PECAN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT………………………………...67

 

EXPERIENCES IN OPERATING PECAN CLEANING EQUIPMENT…………………………………….72

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

10TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1976

 

INDEX

 

SCHEDULING PECAN IRRIGATIONS……………………………………………………………………1

 

THE INFLUENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON PECAN TREES IN THE MESILLA VALLEY OF NEW MEXICO………………………………………………………………………………………………………6

 

PRUNING TECHNIQUES IN PRACTICE……………………………………………………………………9

 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PECAN HARVEST AID RESEARCH THROUGH THE USE OF A SHUCK SPLITTING CHEMICAL……………………………………………………………………………10

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER CONTROL PROGRAM FOR EDDY AND CHAVES COUNTIES………..11

 

AN IMPROVED METHOD OF PECAN TREE TRAINING TO AVOID WEAK CROTCHES AND REDUCE LIMB BREAKAGE………………………………………………………………………………..14

 

WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF PECAN INSECTS IN THE RANS-PECOS AREA OF TEXAS…………26

 

EFFECTS OF DEGREE GROWING DAYS (THERMAL UNITS) ON THE ADAPTABILITY OF PECAN VARIETIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………28

 

WEED MANAGEMENT IN PECANS………………………………………………………………………..37

 

ZINC FERTILIZATION OF PECANS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION…………………………………………40

 

TRAINING YOUNG PECAN TREES…………..……………………………………………………………47

 

NEMATODE DISEASE IN PECAN CULTURE……………………………………………………………..50

 

CONTROLLING APHIDS IN THE PECAN ORCHARD……………………………………………………52

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

11TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1977

 

INDEX

 

PRESIDENT’S ADDRESS……………………………………………………………………..1

 

IN SUPPORT OF FREE AGRICULTURE……………………………………………………………………5

 

AN ANALYSIS OF RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN PECANS IN THE EL PASO

VALLEY………………………………………………………………………………………………………11

 

EFFECT OF TREE SPACING ON YIELD OF YOUNG ‘WESTERN SCHLEY’ AND ‘WICHITA’ PECAN TREES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………17

 

CHEMICAL PRUNING OF YOUNG PECAN TREES………………………………………………………20

 

PECAN POLLINATION IN ARIZONA………………………………………………………………………25

 

PROBLEMS OF YELLOW APHID MANAGEMENT IN PECANS………………………………………...33

 

SOME IMPORTANT INTERACTIONS CONCERNING YELLOW APHIDS, WEATHER AND PECAN TREES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………39

 

PECAN APHID ECONOMIC THRESHOLD STUDY………………………………………………………47

 

A NOTE ON PECAN NUT CASEBEARER REARING ATTEMPTS………………………………………49

 

EVALUATION OF AERIAL APPLICATION ON ACILLUS THURINGIENSIS FOR PECAN NUT CASEBEARER CONTROL IN CARLSBAD, NEW MEXICO……………………………………………..52

 

PECAN MARKETING PANEL

Nick Sachs…………………………………………………………………………………………………….55

Starkey Iberg…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

 

THE REVISED U.S. STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF PECANS IN THE SHELL………………………..64

 


 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

12TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1978

 

INDEX

 

THE EFFECTS OF CONTAINER DESIGN, N-6-BENZLADENINE (BA) AND GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA3) ON PECAN SEEDLINGS……………………………………………………………………………..1

 

THE INFLUENCE OF IBA, KINETIN AND HYDRATION ON PATCH-BUDDING SEEDLING PECAN STEMS ENLARGED WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID………………………………………………………..4

 

SEEDLING PECAN ROOTSTOCKS FOR SIZE CONTROL:  A PRELIMINARY REPORT…………….7

 

METHYL BROMIDE AS A FUMIGANT FOR PECAN NURSERIES……………………………………18

 

INSECTS AFFECTING PECAN WHICH MAY BE TRANSPORTED ON NUTS, GRAFTWOOD AND NURSERY STOCK…………………………………………………………………………………………..21

 

THE THIRD YEAR OF AN INTEGRATED PROGRAM FOR PEST MANAGEMENT ON PECANS…..31

 

EFFECT OF FRUIT REMOVAL ON FRUIT SIZE, FILLING, ABSCISSION AND RETURN FRUIT SET IN PECAN…………………………………………………………………………………………………….42

 

CHEMICALS FOR ADVANCING SHUCK SPLIT…………………………………………………………49

 

FRUIT PLACEMENT WITHIN THE CANOPY OF 5 AND 7 YEAR OLD ‘WICHITA’ AND ‘WESTERN SCHLEY’ PECANS…………………………………………………………………………………………..54

 

WINTER INJURY TO ‘WESTERN SCHLEY’ AND ‘WICHITA’ PECAN TREES……………………….62

 

PECAN CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA……………………………………………………………………….64

 

ORCHARD FLOOR MANAGEMENT FOR YOUNG PECAN TREES IN THE EL PASO VALLEY……67

 

EXHIBITORS—WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWER EQUIPMENT SHOW…………………….73

 

ATTENDING MEMBERS……………………………………………………………………………………75


 

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

13TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1979

 

INDEX

 

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING OF PECAN ORCHARDS IN WEST TEXAS AND SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER BY PECANS………………………………………………………….15

 

PECAN PRODUCTION IN THE ARID WEST AS AFFECTED BY HEDGE PRUNING…………………29

 

NUT QUALITY ASPECTS OF PECANS…………………………………………………………………….40

 

MECHANISMS AND ECONOMICS OF APHID CONTROL IN FAR-WEST TEXAS PECANS…………52

 

THREE DISEASES CAUSING SERIOUS LOSSES IN PECANS…………………………………………..63

 

TREE INJECTION BENEFITS FOR PECANS………………………………………………………………67

 

A COMPARISON OF PECAN GROWING IN SOUTH AFRICA AND THE U.S.A……………………….69

 

WHO IS IN CONTROL?...................................................................................................................................78

 

TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO WATER PROBLEMS………………………………………………………..83

 

IMPACT OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT AND LAND USE PLANNING LEGISLATION ON IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE………………………………………………………………………………………………88

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

15TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1981

 

INDEX

 

A REPORT ON MARKETING AND GRADING FROM THE FEDERATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

EFFECT OF HEDGE PRUNING ON LIGHT PENETRATION, NUT PRODUCTION, AND NUT QUALITY OF ‘WESTERN’ PECAN TREES………………………………………………………………..4

 

PECAN RESEARCH IN INIA……………………………………………………………………………….26

 

WINTER DAMAGE ON ‘WICHITA’ AND ‘WESTERN SCHLEY’………………………………………36

 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE PECAN INDUSTRY IN CHIHUAHUA……………………………………….42

 

EFFECT OF STRESS ON PECAN PHOTOSYNTHESIS……………………………………………………47

 

KEEPING RECORDS OF SOIL AND LEAF ANALYSIS AS A PRODUCTION TOOL…………………..66

 

RESEARCH ON NEW APPROACHES IN THE USE OF A SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDE FOR MANAGEMENT OF APHIDS ON PECANS………………………………………………………………..70

 

SCHEDULING PECAN IRRIGATION WITH MICROCOMPUTERS……………………………………..72

 

LIST OF OTHER PAPERS PRESENTED DURING THE XV WIPGA PECAN CONFERENCE…………87

 

WIPGA 1981 MEMBERSHIP LIST………………………………………………………………………….89

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

16TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1982

 

INDEX

 

WATER REQUIREMENT FOR GROWING PECANS IN FAR WEST TEXAS AND SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

HOW TO MEASURE WATER FLOW UNDER SURFACE IRRIGATION………………………………………………………………………………………………….12

 

NON-SURFACE IRRIGATION OF YOUNG ORCHARDS…………………………………………………14

 

ALTERING SOIL CHEMISTRY FOR ZINC UPTAKE………………………………………….…………..24

 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOIL TEXTURE AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN ALLUVIAL SOILS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30

 

MINERAL NUTRITION OF THE PECAN IN THE IRRIGATED SOUTHWEST………………………….35

 

IMPROVING SOILS WITH MANURE APPLICATION…………………………………………………….45

 

PECAN LEAF SAMPLING:  A REVIEW…………………………………………………………………….75

 

PROBLEMS CONTRIBUTING TO PECAN NUT IMMATURITY IN THE WEST…………………..……95

 

PECAN MARKETING, PRESENT AND FUTURE OUTLOOK…………………………………………….97

 

LIST OF OTHER PAPERS PRESENTED DURING THE 16TH WIPGA PECAN CONFERENCE………...99

 

WIPGA 1982 MEMBERSHIP LIST…………………………………………………………………………100

 


 

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

17TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1983

 

INDEX

 

ASSESSMENT AND POTENTIAL REMEDIES OF SALINITY PROBLEMS IN PECAN ORCHARDS OF THE MIDDLE RIO GRANDE………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

SALT MANAGEMENT WITH LASERED BASINS……………………………………………………….13

 

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION ON NUT QUALITY AND NUT DROP………………………………………24

 

INTERPRETING SOIL AND WATER ANALYSES FOR EVALUATION OF SALINITY

PROBLEMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………..44

 

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PECAN INDUSTRY…………………………………………………….57

 

AN UPDATE ON THE PECAN MARKETING ORDER…………………………………………………….60

 

ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION PROGRAM UNDER A MARKETING ORDER……………………63

 

EARLY FRUIT REMOVAL:  IS IT POSSIBLE?.............................................................................................71

 

PECAN MARKETING IN MEXICO………………………………………………………………………….86

 

USE OF SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES IN DRIP IRRIGATION……………………………………………...91

 

PECAN TISSUE CULTURE…………………………………………………………………………………110

 

PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT IN ALABAMA…………………………………………………………...110

 

REMOVAL IN MATURE ORCHARDS…………………………………………………………………….116

 

OTHER PAPERS PRESENTED DURING THE 17TH WIPGA PECAN CONFERENCE………………….119

 

WIPGA 1983 MEMBERSHIP LIST…………………………………………………………………………120

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

18TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1983

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………1

 

OPENING REMARKS AND PRESENTATION OF MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF

DIRECTORS………………………………………………………………………………………………...4

 

MICROCOMPUTERS IN AGRICULTURE…………………………………………………………….….6

 

RECENT ADVANCES IN CONTROLLING AMMONIA LOSSES FROM SURFACE

APPLIED UREA……………………………………………………………………………………….….…8

 

METHODS OF ZINC FERTILIZATION……………………………………………………………….….18

.

THE BASIC USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM……………………………………………….……26

 

NPACTS IN THE IRRIGATED SOUTHWEST…………………………………………………….………35

 

WATER UTILIZATION AND DIURNAL CYCLES OF PECANS……………………………….………..48

 

PECAN IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN EL PASO VALLEY……………………………………………58

 

TRICKLE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………….83

 

LATE SPRING PRUNING EFFECTS ON YOUNG PECAN TREES……………………………………….87

 

STEPS IN CENTRAL LEADER PECAN TREE TRAINING……………………………………………….93

 

EFFECT OF HEDGE PRUNING ON FRUIT PLACEMENT NUT SIZE AND DEGREE OF

FILLING……………………………………………………………………………………………………..100

 

CHEMICAL TIP-PRUNING ON YOUNG PECAN TREES……………………………………………….117

 

PECAN SHUCK DISORDERS……………………………………………………………………………..125

 

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH PECANS………………………………………………..135

 

THE SUNSET AND THE NEW DAWN…………………………………………………………………….137

 

PECAN SHOW RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………………..141

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

19TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1985

 

INDEX

 

FLUCTUATIONS IN NUTRIENT LEVELS AS AFFECTED BY TISSUE SAMPLING

VARIABILITY…………………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

TRENDS IN GEORGIA PECAN PRODUCTION WITH EMPHASIS ON NUTRITIONAL

BALANCE…………………………………………………………………………………………………5

 

ZINC NUTRITION OF PECAN TREES IN ARIZONA………………………………………………….9

 

PECAN NUT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE MESILLA VALLEY………………………20

 

PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF PECAN………………………………………….26

 

PECAN NUT DISORDERS……………………………………………………………………………….29

 

COTTON ROOT ROT IN PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………………………38

 

ROOT KNOT NEMATODES ON PECANS……………………………………………………………….40

 

REGULATORY ASPECTS OF PECAN INSECTS IN NEW MEXICO…………………………………..42

 

PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT IN GEORGIA, WITH EMPHASIS ON APHIDS AND PECAN NUT CASEBEARER………………………………………………………………………………………………44

 

PECAN WEED CONTROL………………………………………………………………………………….51

 

YELLOW APHID MANAGEMENT IN PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………55

 

PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT (Mini-shortcourse)

                SOIL AND SITE SELECTION…………………………………………………………………….78

 

                PLANTING A PECAN TREE……………………………………………………………………..80

 

                CENTRAL LEADER PECAN TREE TRAINING………………………………………………..84

 

NUTRITION…………………………………………………………………………………………………90

 

SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS…………………………………………………………………………..94

 

INTERPRETING PECAN TREE NUTRITIONAL LEVELS THROUGH LEAF ANALYSES……………99

 

IRRIGATION BASICS………………………………………………………………………………………105

 

WEED CONTROL…………………………………………………………………………………………...108

 

MANAGING THE ORCHARD FLOOR FOR HARVEST…………………………………………………112

 

ECONOMICS OF PECAN ORCHARDS IN NEW MEXICO………………………………………………113

 

PECAN SHOW RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………….122

PROCEEDINGS

20TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1986

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION

WELCOME ADDRESS

WIPGA PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS

 

PECAN VARIETIES AND POLLINATION………………………………………………………………..1

 

PECAN TREES MAIN VARIETIES AND POLLINATORS GROWER’S POINT OF VIEW…………….5

 

PANEL AND OPEN DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………6

 

PECAN GROWERS’ EXPERIENCES WITH ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION……………………………..8

 

PANEL AND OPEN DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………….8

 

THE POLLEN INFLUENCE ON NUT QUALITY OF ‘WESTERN SCHLEY’……………………………11

 

DATE POLLEN HANDLING AND STORAGE…………………………………………………………….29

 

SOME EXPERIENCES IN THE COLLECTION, HANDLING, AND APPLICATION OF FRUIT AND NUT POLLENS……………………………………………………………………………………………….38

 

PANEL AND OPEN DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………..43

 

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PECAN NUT

DEVELOPMENT………………………………………………………………………………………..……45

 

PECAN NUT GRADE STANDARDS AND INSPECTION…………………………………………………58

 

BASIC PROCEDURES FOR ARTIFICIAL PECAN DRYING…………………………………………...…62

 

POST HARVEST HANDLING OF ERLY-HARVESTED PECANS………………………………………..77

 

ETHEPHON:  A POTENTIAL HARVEST AID FOR PECANS…………………………………………….80

 

PANEL AND OPEN DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………..82

 

PECAN SHOW RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………………85

 

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

21ST ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1987

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION

WELCOME ADDRESS

 

WATER USE BY YOUNG PECAN TREES………………………………………………………………1

 

SCHEDULING IRRIGATION ON PECANS USING THE CROP WATER STRESS INDEX…………13

 

IRRIGATION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR PECANS………………………………………………………..35

 

WATER STRESS EFFECTS ON PECAN GROWTH AND YIELD USING INFRARED

THERMOMETRY………………………………………………………………………………………….47

 

MEASURING SOIL MOISTURE IN EL PASO VALLEY PECAN ORCHARDS……………………….51

 

MICRO-SPRINKLER PECAN IRRIGATION EVALUATION IN ECTOR COUNTY…………………..53

 

APHID POPULATIONS IN PECAN ORCHARDS OF NEW MEXICO AND WEST TEXAS…………..61

 

ARIZONA  APHID POPULATION TREND, PRESENT SITUATION AND RESULTS OF INSECTICIDE APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………….68

 

ENERGY DRAIN BY THREE PECAN APHID SPECIES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON IN-SHELL PECAN PRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………..76

 

PECAN APHICIDES:  PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE…………………………………………………105

 

MANAGEMENT OF INSECTICIDE INDUCED PECAN APHID POPULATIONS……………………..119

 

FORECASTING SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF PECAN APHID POPULATIONS…………………..139

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS…………………………………………………………156

 

THE DILEMMA IN MANAGING THE HONEYDEW APHID COMPLEX ON PECAN………………..166

 

ESTIMATED SELF-POLLINATION IN PECAN ORCHARDS COMPRISED OF ‘WESTERN’ AND ‘WICHITA’ AND RELATION TO NUT QUALITY……………………………………………………….175

 

PECAN HANDLING AND STORAGE…………………………………………………………………….206

 

PRUNING VS TREE THINNING…………………………………………………………………………..212

 

APHID INFESTATIONS IN CALIFORNIA PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………….222

 

NATIONAL PECAN MARKETING COUNCIL PRESENTATION………………………………………224

 

1987 PECAN SHOW RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………228

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

22ND ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1988

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………2

 

PECAN IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT USING INFRARED……………………………………………..3

 

MANAGING THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER BY PREDICTING TIMING OF INSECTICIDE SPRAYING USING A COMPUTER PROGRAM……………………………………………………………15

 

THE ROLE OF COMPUTERS IN COMMERCIAL PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT………………26

 

FARM BUSINESS WORKSHEETS SERVICES—PECANS……………………………………………….34

 

FORECASTING NEW MEXICO PECAN PRODUCTION………………………………………………….36

 

PREVAILING ISSUES COMMON TO PECANA GROWERS, ACCUMULATORS,

AND SHELLERS……………………………………………………………………………………...………51

 

MARKETING ALTERNATIVES FOR GROWERS AND GROUP MARKETING

ALTERNATIVES FOR PECAN SHELLERS……………………………………………………………..….69

 

SUPPLEMENTAL POLLINATION BY AIRCRAFT:  CAN IT BE SUCCESSFUL………….…………….76

 

CONTROLLING TREE SIZE WITH GROWING REGULATORS………………………………………….86

 

FERTIGATION FOR PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………………………………….87

 

USE OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM PHEROMONE IN A PECAN PEST

MANAGEMENT PROGRAM………………………………………………………………………………...93

 

SOOTY MOLD FUNGUS ON PECAN FOLIAGE SUPPRESSES NET PHOTOSYTHESIS AND

LIGHT PENETRATION………………………………………………………………………………………96

 

APHID AND PREDATOR POPULATIONS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY……………………………….109

 

1988 PECAN SHOW RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………….114

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

23RD ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1989

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………2

 

OPENING REMARKS……………………………………………………………………………………….6

 

TEXASWEET: THE PROMOTION AND MARKETING OF TEXAS CITRUS…………………………..10

 

WALNUT COMMISSION.  HOW IT WAS ESTABLISHED, HOW IT OPERATES……………………..15

 

PRINCIPLES OF ZINC NUTRITION……………………………………………………………………….17

 

FERTILIZING WITH ZINC THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION…………………………………………….24

 

CAUSES AND REMEDIES OF SLOW WATER INFILTRATION………………………………………..27

 

THE USE OF CALCIUM WITH UREA FERTILIZERS……………………………………………………38

 

PECAN NUTRITION…………………………………………………………………………………………55

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER………………………………………………………………………………  97

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER CONTROL BY AERIAL APPLICATION………………………………..105

 

STICKTIGHTS, WHY IT HAPPEN?............................................................................................................116

 

ON FARM PECAN ORCHARD IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT USING

INFRARED THERMOMETERS………………………………………………………………………….. 123

 

METHODS OF PREVENTING PREHARVEST GERMINATION……………………………………….130

 


PROCEEDINGS

24TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1990

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME TO PECAN CONFERENCE……………………………………………………………………..1

 

OPENING REMARKS AND INTRODUCTION OF OFFICERS AND

EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBERS…………………………………………………………………………….4

 

HISTORY OF TAXES AND TAX-FREE INVESTMENTS……………………………………………… ..…5

 

ESTATE PLANNING THROUGH THE USE OF WILLS, TRUSTS AND OTHER TOOLS……………..…8

 

GRADING PECANS…………………………………………………………………………………………..12

 

PECAN QUALITY PARAMETERS AFFECTED BY EARLY HARVESTING…………………………….15

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER:  AN UP-DATE………………………………………………………………33

 

SOIL MEASURE MOISTURE……………………………………………………………………………….40

 

TREE PECAN FREEZE DAMAGE………………………………………………………………………….50

 

QUANTIFICATION OF PECAN WATER STRESS FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING…………………52

 

ORCHARD VEGETATION MANAGEMENT:  EFFECTS ON WATER USE AND

SOILS CHARACTERISTICS…………………………………………………………………………………56

 

SALINITY MANAGEMENT IN IRRIGATED PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………63

 

ACID FERTILIZER, DO THEY WORK?.........................................................................................................70

 

A 1990 UPDATE FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF TRICKLE IRRIGATION

SYSTEMS...........................................................................................................................................................80

 

CHEMICAL SOIL AMENDMENTS FOR PECAN ORCHARDS:  WHY THEY WORK AND WHY THEY DON’T…………………………………………………………………………………………………………95

 

PESTICIDES/GROUNDWATER:  HOW IT AFFECTS COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE………...……100

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

25TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1991

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

THE DISCOVERY OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM, CYDIA CARYANA, IN EL PASO…………………2

 

BALANCING BENEFITS AND RISKS OF PECAN INSECTICIDES……………………………………..7

 

GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION…………………………………………………………………..14

 

MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE UNDERGROUND WATER QUALITY………………15

 

UPDATE ON NM REGULATIONS CONVERING PECANS……………………………………………..20

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PECAN NUT CASEBEARER IN THE MESILLA VALLEY……………25

 

FIELD MONITORING WITH HICKORY SHUCKWORM SEX PHEROMONE…………………………32

 

GROWER’S EXPERIENCE IN USING BENEFICIALS FOR APHID CONTROL………………………..40

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL PROGRAMS USED BY ARNOLD BROS…………………………………….42

 

USING BENEFICIAL INSECTS FOR APHID CONTROL IN ARIZONA…………………………………45

 

POTENTIAL FOR COVER CROPS AS A HOST FOR BENEFICIAL INSECTS IN

PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………………………………………………………53

 

NEW MEXICO ORGANIC COMMODITY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM……………………………….62

 

BIOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR THE FUTURE………………………………………………………………64

 

FEDERATED UPDATE……………………………………………………………………………………….72

 

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF QUALITY: STANDARDS FOR PECAN GRADES, CULTURAL, AND MARKETING PRACTICES………………………………………………………………………………..…74

 

TRENDS IN NUT CONSUMPTION………………………………………………………………………….85

 

DIRECT MARKETING:  GROWER’S POINT OF VIEW………………………………………………….101

 

DIRECT MARKETING……………………………………………………………………………………...104

 

PECAN IMPORTS TO JAPAN AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITY: IS THERE A PLACE FOR THE UNITED STATES……………………………………………………………………………………………107

 

PERCEPTION AND RECOMMENDATION OF WESTERN PECAN SHELLERS COMPARED TO THOSE OF EASTERN SHELLERS…………………………………………………………………………119

 

RECENT CASE LAW & LEGISLATIVE CHANGES TO WORKERS’ COMPENSATION IN NEW MEXICO……………………………………………………………………………………………………...134

 

RECORDKEEPING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………..138

 

HANDLING PECANS DURING & AFTER HARVEST………………………………………………...…152

 

TREE REMOVAL IN A MATURE PECAN ORCHARD…………………………………………………..156

 

EFFECT OF GYPSUM APPLICATION ON HIGH SODIUM PECAN ORCHARD SOILS………………161

 

PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR THE 90S…………………………………….167

 

PECANS AS A HEALTH FOOD……………………………………………………………………………176

 


 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

26TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1992

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

WESTERN PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION GENERAL MEETING & WELCOME…………………2

 

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM IN THE UPPER

RIO GRANDE VALLEY – 1991………………………………………………………………………………4

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY, NM…………………….10

 

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN SHIPPING REGULATIONS FOR IN-SHELL PECANS…………………..11

 

BENEFICIAL INSECTS OF PECANS WITH EMPHASIS ON LACEWINGS……………………………..17

 

PECNA DISEASES OF THE SOUTHEAST A THREAT TO THE SOUTHWEST…………………………44

 

U.S. PECAN AND TREE NUT SITUATION………………………………………………………………...49

 

PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL PECAN MARKETING COUNCIL,

HISTORY, ACCOMPLISHMENTS, AND RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FUTURE…………………..69

 

PECAN MAREKTING PLAN UPDATE……………………………………………………………………..73

 

INTERNATIONAL PECAN MARKET POTENTIAL (PANEL)…………………………………………….85

 

USDA FEDERAL-STATE MARKET NEWS PECAN REPORT FOR WESTERN REGION………………91

 

PRODUCTION AND OUTLOOK FOR PECANS IN THE SOUTHWEST………………………………….97

 

THE PECAN INDUSTRY IN THE WESTERN REGION………………………………………………..…107

 

THE PECAN INDUSTRY IN MEXICO:  PRODUCTION POTENTIAL…………………………………..112

 

PECAN PRODUCTION IN COUNTRIES OTHER THAN THE UNITED STATES

AND MEXICO……………………………………………………………………………………………….124

 

AGRICULTURE IN THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT……………………….…128

 

PECAN IMPORTS FROM MEXICO AND THE EFFECT OF A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT……...…133

 

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS ON PECANS……………………………………………..150

 

THE POTENTIAL FOR CORRECTING ZINC DEFICIENCY WITH SULFURIC

ACID IN ARID SOILS……………………………………………………………………………………….167

 

WEED CONTROL IN PECAN ORCHARDS IN ARIZONA……………………………………………….169

 

SUNLIGHT AND NUT PRODUCTION PATTERNS OF PECAN…………………………………………171

 

TRANSPLANTING PECAN TREES………………………………………………………………………..181

 

PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT COSTS IN MEXICO………………………………………………184

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

27TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1993

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS……………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER (PNC) AND HICKORY SHUCKWORM UPDATE…………………………6

 

TIMING PECAN NUT CASEBEARER TREATMENT:  ESSENTIAL TO CONTROL

EFFECTIVENESS……………………………………………………………………………………………..17

 

MONITORING COMPUTER MODELING AND PHEROMONE MATING DISRUPTION FOR CONTROL OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM IN PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………...……………20

 

PECAN CIGAR CASEBEARER AND PECAN LEAF CASEBEARER…………………………………….44

 

MINIMIZING INSECTICIDE USE…………………………………………………………………………...51

 

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES FOR YOUR PECAN ORCHARD…………………………………..56

 

LIABILITY INSURANCE NEEDS FOR PECAN ORCHARD OPERATIONS…………………………….61

 

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT IN CENTRAL TEXAS………………………………………………………63

 

TREE PRUNING ON ESTABLISHED ORCHARDS:  PANEL…………………………………………….66

 

MINIMUM TILLAGE TO REDUCE SOIL COMPACTION IN THE ORCHARD FLOOR:

PANEL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………84

 

UPDATE ON NM PECAN ACREAGE, 1993………………………………………………………...………92

..

MARKETING AND RESEARCH ACT OF 1990:  AN UPDATE……………………………...……………97

 

SUMMARY RESULTS OF PECAN MARKETING SURVEY……………………………………………...99

 

CHANGING TIMES FOR IRRIGATION…………………………………………………………………...110

 

CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE FOR PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………….117

 

USING WATER HOLDING CAPACITY IN IRRIGATION DESIGN…………………………………….124

 

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING FOR PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………...…131

 

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS……………………………………………………………………………………135

 

DESIGNING DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………….145

 

INSTRUMENTS USED FOR MEASURING SOIL MOISTURE………………………………………….157

 

OPENING REMARKS AND GENERAL MEETING………………………………………………………160

 

1993 WPGA CONFERENCE

INTERNATION PECAN SHOW RESULTS………………………………………………………………..162

 

PROCEEDINGS

28TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1994

 

INDEX

 

CONFERERNCE WELCOME………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

GENERAL MEETING OF THE WESTERN PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION………………………....3

 

THE 1993 PECAN/TREE NUT MARKETING SEASON AN OVERVIEW OF

PRODUCTION, PRICES AND THE PECAN MARKET COLLAPSE…………………………………..……6

 

INSHELL PECAN GRADING STANDARDS WHY?

THE ELEMENTS OF QUALITY………………………………………………………………………..……32

 

EATING QUALITY AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW MEXICO

PECAN CULTIVARS HARVESTED THREE YEARS…………………………………………………...…46

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER AND HICKORY SHUCKWORM UPDATE………………………………..67

 

EVALUATION OF BENEFICIAL INSECTS FOR CONTROL OF PECAN PESTS……………………….74

 

EVALUATION OF DIPEL ES FOR CONTROL OF THE PECAN

NUT CASEBEARER AND IMPACT ON YELLOW PECAN APHIDS……………………………………85

 

IN SEARCH OF THE SEX ATTRACTANT PHEROMONE OF THE

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER……………………………………………………………………………….88

 

THE USE OF SEX PHEROMONE TO MONITOR THE HICKORY

SHUCKWORM:  AN UPDATE OF CURRENT IPM RESEARCH………………………………………..93

 

THE FUNGI INVOLVED IN SHUCK DISEASE AND FUNGAL LEAF

SCORCH OF PECAN……………………………………………………………………………………….106

 

WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD OVERVIEW…………………………………………………….123

 

PECAN CULTURE IN OKLAHOMA – A GROWER’S PERSPECTIVE

ON RECENT CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………147

 

FREEZE INJURY TO PECANS……………………………………………………………………………155

 

REDUCE ALTERNATE BEARING WITH MECHANICAL NUT THINNING…………………………158

 

NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN PECAN………………………………………………………………..166

 

OPTIMIZING CROP PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN USE

EFFICIENCY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS………………………………………….170

 

POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIATION AND NUTRITION

OF PECAN IN THE DESERT SOUTHWEST……………………………………………………………..174

 

EVALUATION OF LOW INPUT PECAN ORCHARD FLOOR MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS…………180

 

NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON ALTERNATE BEARING AND

NUT QUALITY IN PECAN…………………………………………………………………………………184

 

KNOW YOUR SOIL, KNOW YOUR TREES, KNOW THEIR

NEEDS:  LEAF SAMPLING AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS…………………………………..206

 

FERTIGATION FOR PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………………………………...214

 

ZINC NUTRITION………………………………………………………………………………………...…223

 

CHELATES PROVE TO BE UNSATISFACTORY IN SOLVING ZINC

DEFICIENCY OF PECAN TREES IN ALKALINE SOILS………………………………………………..226

 

LIGHT AND WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR MAXIMUM PECAN PRODUCTION…………………..236

 

MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE USDA-ARS

PECAN BREEDING AND GENETICS UNIT………………………………………………………………239

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW…………………………………………………………...……241

 


 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS

29TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1995

 

INDEX

 

OPENING REMARKS AND GENERAL MEETING………………………………………………………..1

 

SUCCESSION PLANNING AND ESTATE PLANNING WORKSHOP…………………………………….3

 

ORCHARD SOIL MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………….19

 

PECAN ROOT GROWTH…………………………………………………………………………………….37

 

ORCHARD FLOOR CROPS AFFECT GROWTH OF YOUNG PECAN TREES…………………………..43

 

PROBLEMS THAT CAN OCCUR WITH SOIL SATURATION……………………………………………51

 

WATER MOVEMENT AND RETENTION IN LAYERED AND

COMPACTED SOILS…………………………………………………………………………………………63

 

PHYSICAL SOIL MANAGEMENT AND MANIPULATION………………………………………………67

 

MANAGING SOIL CHEMICAL PROBLEMS……………………………………………………………….71

 

THE SOIL/ROOT ENVIRONMENT:  WHAT YOU AS A GROWER SHOULD KNOW………………….76

 

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT TO MINIMIZE COMPACTION IN PECAN ORCHARDS………………...81

 

GROWER’S EXPERIENCES DEALING WITH SOIL DRAINAGE………………………………………..82

 

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF BLACK APHIDS………………………………………………………….91

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER (PNC) MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………….95

 

USING PHEROMONE TRAPS TO DETECT AND MONITOR PECAN NUT CASEBEARER…………104

 

USING THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER COMPUER MODEL TO ASSIST PECAN GROWERS

IN THE EL PASO AREA…………………………………………………………………………………….108

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW………………………………………………………………...111

 

CONTROLLING THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER……………………………………………………...132

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

30TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1996

 

INDEX

 

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER MONITORING PROGRAM FOR UPPER RIO GRANDE

VALLEY – 1995 –1ST YEAR DATA…………………………………………………………………………2

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER (1995 MESILLA VALEY RESULTS)………………………………………5

 

HOW PHEROMONE TRAPS CAN HELP GROWERS MANAGE THE

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER……………………………………………………………………………….11

 

AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT APROACH, EMPHASIZING

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL FOR PECAN APHIDS…………………………………………………………13

 

CONTROLLING THE PECAN NUT CASEBEARER BY APPLYING INSECTICIDE

BASED ON HEAT UNITS…………………………………………………………………………………..27

 

TAPROOT TREATMENTS FOR BARE ROOT TRANSPLANTED PECAN TREES……………………32

 

WEED COMPETITION IN PECANS…………………………………………………………….…………36

 

GREEN HARVESTING-BROOKSHIER PECAN FARMS……………………………………..………….41

 

DRYING AND HANDLING EARLY HARVESTED PECANS……………………………………………44

 

IMPACT OF HURRICANE OPAL ON THE ALABAMA PECAN INDUSTRY………………………….51

 

SHUCK DECLINE PROBLEMS OF THE SOUTHEAST AND THE SOUTHWEST…………………….54

 

CAN ALL OR PART OF THE NITROGEN (N) NEEDS FOR PECAN BE SUPPLIED

BY FOLIAR APPLICATION?.......................................................................................................................62

 

MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY OF FERTILIZER USE FOR PECANS……………………………………..64

 

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR TRANSPLANTED MATURE PECAN TREES…………………….71

 

NITROGEN FERTILIZATION FOR TRANSPLANTED PECAN TREES…………………………………76

 

PRUNING TRANSPLANTED PECAN TREES……………………………………………………………..83

 

ECONOMICAL COMPARISON OF PLANTING YOUNG TREES AND

TRANSPLANTING MATURE TREES………………………………………………………………………91

 

TREE TRANSPLANTING IN GEORGIA……………………………………………………………………94

 

SUNLIGHT MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………………..98

 

SUSTAINABLE PRUNING OF PECAN TREES…………………………………………………………...108

 

MANAGING TREE SIZE AND DENSITY FOR OPTIMUM PRODUCTION…………………………….119

 

ELIMINATING TRUNK STUMPS IN PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………130

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW (AWARDS)…………………………………………………134

 

GENERAL MEETING MINUTES…………………………………………………………………………137

 

OTHER SPEAKERS………………………………………………………………………………………..140

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

31ST ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1997

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

AN UPDATE OF THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM AND NPACTS TESTING

IN THE WEST………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

 

AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFICIAL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION:

ITS CHEMISTRY AND CONTROL……………………………………………………….………………..7

 

EATING PECANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHOLESTEROL…………………………………………19

 

FREEZE INJURY IN PECAN……………………………………………………………………………….27

 

RECORDS USED AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL……………………………………………………….…33

 

PECAN ROOTSTOCKS FOR THE WESTERN UNITED STATES……………………………………….36

 

THE 1996 PECAN/TREE NUT MARKETING SEASON

AN OVERVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PRICES AND THE PECAN MARKET

COLLAPSE OF 1996…………………………………………………………………………………………47

 

USDA COLD STORAGE REPORTS………………………………………………………………………...72

 

WPGA GENERAL MEETING……………………………………………………………………………….77

 

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ORCHARD SPRAYING……………………………………………………..79

 

ELECTROSTATIC/CONVENTIONAL SPRAYER COMPARISON

SPRAY EQUIPMENT CAN AFFECT PEST, NUTRITION MANAGEMENT…………………………….85

 

AIRCRAFT VS GROUND SPRAYING:  PATTERNS & COVERAGE……………………………………93

 

CONCENTRATE VS. DILUTE INSECTICIDAL SPRAYING OF

FRUITS AND NUTS……………………………………………………………………………………….…95

 

THE CALIBRATION OF PECAN SPRAYERS MADE EASY OR

THE OPEING OF PANDORA’S BOX……………………………………………………………….……..101

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER MONITORING PROGRAM FOR UPPER RIO RANDE

VALLEY – 1996……………………………………………………………………………………….…….110

 

EVALUATION OF THE NEW PECAN NUT CASEBEARER PHEROMONE IN TWO

COMMERCIAL ORCHARDS IN EL PASO COUNTY—YEAR TWO—1996……………………….…..113

 

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BLACK PECAN APHIDS……………………………………………….…..116

 

MONITORING BLACK PECAN APHIDS…………………………………………………………………120

 

RESULTS OF THE 1996 INSECTICIDE TRIALS FOR CONTROL OF THE PECAN NUT

CASEBEARER, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON CONTROL OF HICKORY SHUCKWORM

AND FALL WEBWORM……………………………………………………………………………………123

ORCHARD SPRAY DRIFT MODELS………………………………………………………………….….144

 

NEW SPRAYER TECHNOLOGY……………………………………………………………………….…148

 

WPGA PECAN FOOD FANTASY……………………………………………………………………….…152

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW…………………………………………………………….….159

 

OTHER SPEAKERS…………………………………………………………………………………………170

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

32ND ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1998

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS……………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

GENERAL MEETING………………………………………………………………………………………2

 

PECAN ENTOMOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRESS (PECAN NUT CASEBEARER…………………….4

 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PECAN INSECTS…………………….14

 

OBSERVATIONS OF A CONSULTANT IN THE LAS CRUCES/EL PASO AREA,

PERTAINING TO PECAN NUT CASEBEARER………………………………………………………….19

 

NEMATODE INFESTATIONS IN PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………………….24

 

MARKETING PECANS:  PREPARING A MARKETING PLAN………………………………………….27

 

HOW DO WE USE THE ADVANTAGES OF PECAN NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES TO

PROMOTE PECAN CONSUMPTION?...........................................................................................................40

 

INTERNATIONAL NUT COUNCIL…………………………………………………………………………48

 

WALNUT MARKETING AND PROMOTION PROGRAMS……………………………………………….51

 

PECAN MARKETING, PROMOTION AND RESEARCH PROGRAM……………………………………60

 

MARAKET DEVELOPMENT FOR PECANS……………………………………………………………….66

 

WPGA MARKETING AND PROMOTION PROGRAM…………………………………………………….73

 

EXPORTING PECANS………………………………………………………………………………………..76

 

PECAN MARKET ANALYSIS WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE LAST FIVE YEARS…………………...90

 

WATER POLITICS IN THE LOCAL AREA………………………………………………………………..100

 

SURGE FLOW IRRIGATION……………………………………………………………………………….106

 

ENVIRONMENTALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SOUND SOLUTIONS TO WATER

TREATMENT PROBLEMS…………………………………………………………………………………110

 

IMPROVING PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

IN THE WESTERN REGION……………………………………………………………………………….121

 

COMPUTER EDUCATIONAL TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR THE PECAN INDUSTRY………………….127

 

WPGA PECAN FOOD FANTASY………………………………………………………………………….130

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW………………………………………………………………..133

 

OTHER SPEAKERS…………………………………………………………………………………………134

PROCEEDINGS

33RD ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

1999

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

MESSAGE FROM THE WPGA PRESIDENT………………………………………………………………..2

 

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER MONITORING PROGRAM FOR UPPER

RIO GRNADE VALLEY –1998……………………………………………………………………………….4

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS IN PECANS……………………………………………….13

 

USING NEW TECHNOLOGY TO OPTIMIZE AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES:

PRECISION AGRICULTURE AND PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT……………………………………..29

 

THE USE OF CONFIRM 2F AND PROVADO 1.6F IN PECAN IPM PROGRAMS………………………38

 

A BIO-INTENSIVE APPROACH TO PECAN INSECT MANAGEMENT…………………………………49

 

POTENTIAL ECONOMIC NUT DAMAGE DUE TO THIRD GENERATION

PECAN NUT CASEBEARER IN SOUTHERN NEW MEXICO…………………………………………….57

 

HIBANA INSURSA (Araneae: Anyphaenidae): A PREDATOR OF

PECAN PESTS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES...................................................................63

 

LIGHT INTERCEPTION IN PECAN TREES:  COMPUTER MODELING AND

FIELD MEASUREMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………..74

 

PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT: TILL VS. NO-TILL……………………………………………….86

 

NUTRIENT STATUS OF PECANS IN THE MESILLA VALLEY………………………………………...89

 

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF IRRIGATION AND WATER

USE IN PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………………………………………….95

 

BORON NUTRITION OF PECANS………………………………………………………………………..101

 

NITROGEN ACCOUNTING UNDER PECANS…………………………………………………………...105

 

IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN MANAGEMENT IN PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………117

 

PECAN WEEVIL BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES………………………………………128

 

PECANS FROM A COMMERCIAL USER’S STANDPOINT.....................................................................134

 

PECAN MARKETING ORDER…………………………………………………………………………….144

 

ESTATE PLANNING TECHNIQUES: ‘HOW TO LEAVE THE

TAX MAN NOTHING’………………………………………………………………………………………150

 

GENERAL MEETING…………………………………………………………………………………….…151

 

WPGA PECAN FOOD FANTASY………………………………………………………………………….154

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW………………………………………………………………..158

PROCEEDINGS

35TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

2001

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………..1

 

THE STATUS OF NEMATODES IN WESTERN PECAN ORCHARDS:      

WHAT WE KNOW AND WHAT WE DON’T………………………………………………………………..2

 

PECAN WEEVIL: BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

AND REPORTED DISTRIBTION IN TEXAS………………………………………………………………..6

 

TRAP CROP RESEARCH UPDATE AND THE EFFECTS OF INSECTICIDES

FOR CONTROL OF PECAN NUT CASEBEARER AND SHUCKWORM ON

YELLOW APHIDS……………………………………………………………………………………………13

 

PESTICIDE SELECTION AND STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING

MULTIPLE PESTS IN WESTERN PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………………..23

 

DEPOSITION AND DRIFT FROM AERIAL SPRAYING OF PECANS…………………………………...27

 

INTEGRATED PECAN MANAGEMENT IN PECANS:  SOME CONSIDERATIONS……………………40

 

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OPTIONS IN NEW MEXICO PECANS………………………………….…….45

 

HIGHLIGHTS OF 1998-2000 PECAN RESEARCH, NMSU………………………………………………..56

 

PECAN WEEVIL UPDATE 2000-2001………………………………………………………………………61

 

ORGANIC PECAN PRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………….64

 

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED PESTICIDES AND

NUTRIENTS AT SURFACE WATER SITES IN THE MESILLA VALLEY, 1994-95…………………….66

 

STATE PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE PROTECTION OF

GROUND WATER……………………………………………………………………………………………78

 

COMPETITION FOR WATER AMONG AGRICULTURE, MUNICIPAL,

ENVIRONMENTAL AND OTHER USERS………………………………………………………………….82

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FACING TREE NUT CULTURE IN CALIFORNIA………………………..88

 

U.S. PEAN IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AND THE

EFFECT ON TRADE………………………………………………………………………………………….93

 

ECONOMIC AND OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS OF

NEW MEXICO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION……………………………………………………….110

 

TRACTOR AND EQUIPMENT SAFETY IN PECAN ORCHARDS………………………………………117

 

PECAN RESEARCH IN NEW MEXICO……………………………………………………………………122

 

NON-COMMENSURABLE VALUES OF THE PECAN INDUSTRY…………………………………….127

 

PECAN PROPAGATION:  BUDDING AND GRAFTING…………………………………………………132

 

WPGA ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING…………………………………………………………………..134

 

WPGA PECAN FOOD FANTASY………………………………………………………………………….135

 

WPGA INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW………………………………………………………………..139

 


 

 

PROCEEDINGS

37TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

2003

 

INDEX

 

 

WELCOME ADDRESS………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

PECAN WEEVIL UPDATE………………………………………………………………………………….2

 

BASIC IPM CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS……………………………………………………………...5

 

CONSIDERATIONS IN PECAN NUT CASEBEARER MANAGEMENT

IN THE FAR WEST……………………………………………………………………………………….…11

 

INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BLACK PECAN APHID IN PECANS…………………..17

 

MANAGING COTTON ROOT ROT………………………………………………………………………..22

 

PECAN MYCORRHIZAE:  A UNION OF BENEFICIAL FUNGI

AND FINE ROOTS………………………………………………………………………………………….25

 

HOW TREES FIX, ALLOCATE, USE AND SHARE ORGANIC CARBON……………………………..29

 

FACTORS AFFECTING INDUCTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF PISTILLATE

FLOWERS ON PECAN TREES……………………………………………………………………………34

 

MECHANICAL PRUNING OF PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………………39

 

NEW MEXICO AIR QUALAITY AGRICULTURE INITIATIVE………………………………………..45

 

PECAN REVENUE INSURANCE PROGRAM……………………………………………………………46

 

ELEPHANT BUTTE IRRIGATION DISTRICT DROUGHT UPDATE…………………………………..60

 

IMPROVING PECAN MARKETING: AN INSIDER’S VIEW……………………………………………79

 

US TREE NUTS.  US PECAN IMPORTS & EXPORTS, THE PECAN MARKET

SITUATION AND VALUE ADDED OPPORTUNITIES………………………………………………….83

 

MARKETING PECANS PANEL

                STATE OF THE PECAN INDUSTRY…………………………………………………………...105

                PECAN MARKET IN MEXICO………………………………………………………………….111

                SELLING PECANS IN NON-TRADITIONAL MARKETS…………………………………….119

                MARKETING OFF GRADE PECANS…………………………………………………………..123

 

PECAN MARKETING ALTERNATIVES-PANEL

                Nina Brookshier…………………………………………………………………………………..125

                Guadalupe Ramirez……………………………………………………………………………….127

                Sandra Portillo…………………………………………………………………………………….128

                Sally Rovirosa-Stahmann…………………………………………………………………………129

 

MARKETING AND GRADING PECANS………………………………………………………………...132

 

INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW RESULTS…………………………………………………………..137

 

PECAN FOOD FANTASY…………………………………………………………………………………138

 

SPEAKERS LIST……………………………………………………………………………………………140

 


 

PROCEEDINGS

38TH ANNUAL

WESTERN IRRIGATED PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION

CONFERENCE

2004

 

INDEX

 

WELCOME ADDRESS……………………………………………………………………………………….1

 

2003 PECAN WEEVIL STATE REPORT…………………………………………………………………….3

 

FOLIAR INSECTICIDES FOR USE IN PECAN IPM………………………………………………………..4

 

WEED MANAGEMENT IN PECAN ORCHARDS…………………………………………………………10

 

PECAN ORCHARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THAT INFLUENCE NUT GERMINATION……….12

 

NMSU PECAN RESEARCH:  AN UPDATE……………………………………………………………… ..18

 

MAINTAINING PUMPING EFFICIENCY IN WATER WELLS…………………………………...………24

 

ADJUSTMENT OF CLOSED CANOPY CROP COEFFICIENTS OF PECANS FOR

OPEN CANOPY ORCHARDS……………………………………………………………………………….28

 

COSTS OF PRESSURIZED IRRIGATION SYSTEMS FOR TREE CROPS……………………………….33

 

SOIL MOISTURE MEASURING DEVICES………………………………………………………………..56

 

PREDICTION OF WATER STRESS IN PECAN ORCHARDS WITH

REMOTE SENSING…………………………………………………………………………………………60

 

CONVERTING FLOOD IRRIGATION TO MICROIRRIGATION………………………………………..66

 

CONSERVATION OF NM WATER FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE…………………………….69

 

ORCHARD MANAGEMENT UNDER WATER QUALITY CONSTRAINTS…………………………….71

 

NATIONAL NPSA PECAN MAREKTING & PROMOTION CAMPAIGN………………………………..83

 

ALTERNATIVE MARKETS FOR PECANS IN MEXICO………………………………………………….88

 

MANAGING NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM NEEDS

FOR PECAN ORCHARDS……………………………………………………………………………………93

 

DECOMPOSITION OF PECAN WOODCHIPS…………………………………………………………….108

 

LEAF AND SOIL ANALYSES FOR PECANORCHARD MANAGEMENT……………………………..117

 

NICKEL, MOUSE-EAR, AND PECAN…………………………………………………………………….121

 

SOIL AND IRRIGATION SYSTEM APPLICATION OF MINOR ELEMENTS………………………….133

 

FRUIT THINNING IMPROVES NUT QUALITY AND RETURN BLOOM

OF PECAN TREES…………………………………………………………………………………………..142

 

INTERNATIONAL PECAN SHOW RESULTS…………………………………………………………….145

 

PECAN FOOD FANTASY…………………………………………………………………………………146

 

SPEAKERS LIST……………………………………………………………………………………………148

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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