Soil 470 Notes

Soil and Water conservation agencies and EPA

Lecture 3

1) Soil erosion studies started in 1917 to develop the universal soil loss equation

2) 1930 Buchanan Amendment to the Agriculture Bill established ten soil erosion experiment stations and ten plant nurseries.

3) Soil erosion service established 1933 to be replaced by Soil Conservation Service in 1935.

4) Droughts in 1931-1938 in The Great Plains led to a great wind erosion in May 11, 1934 and March 6, 1935, resulted in the permanent establishment of SCS    Renamined Natural Resource and Conservation Service

5) List of SCS Assistance

6) Current Decrease of SCS. Why?

7) Most conservation deal with tillage practices

8) Surface mine spoils reclamation

a) soil survey and plant species transect

b) conservation during mining terracing

c) soil and water conservation after mines for vegetation reestablishment

d) reclaim abandoned mine spoils

9) Resource conservation SCS work as

a) recreation facilities

b) Forest and Wildlife Conservation

c) reduction of air and water pollution

d land use planning

10)Great Plain conservation program

currently CRP

conservation range program

11) Conservation districts (usually one each county)

a) planning and directing of soil and water conservation programs in the district

12) Agriculture conservation program--cost sharing

13 ) university Extension research, Morrill Act, Hatch Act, ARS

EPA history 

  1. Official birthday of EPA is December 2, 1970
  2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
"To declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment."
"To promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man."
"To enrich our understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation."

Mission of EPA 
"Establish and enforce environmental protection standards.
 Conduct environmental research.
 Provide assistance to others combating environmental pollution.
 Assist the CEQ in developing and recommending to the President new policies for environmental protection."

The New agency got job responsibilities from other federal agencies. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)  transferred the National Air Pollution Control Administration, the bureaus of Water Hygiene and Solid Waste Management, and some functions of the Bureau of Radiological Health along with the power over tolerance levels for pesticides. The department of Interior also relinquished the pesticide research responsibilities and the Department of Agriculture gave EPA  registration functions of pesticides..

EPA acquired the Federal Water Quality Administration from the Department of the Interior.

The States also have a state agency that regulates Environmental Issues.